He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State").The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.
They had been granted a general amnesty on 17 March, yet Antony succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome.
His father, also named Gaius Octavius, had been governor of Macedonia.
Philippus claimed descent from Alexander the Great, and was elected consul in 56 BC.
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).
The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.